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The green ring outlining the gradual enlarging of optic nerve “cup” shows the progression of the Glaucoma disease
TYPES OF GLAUCOMA
Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma
Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma
When eye pressure builds up rapidly, it is called acute angle-closure glaucoma.
This type of glaucoma commonly occurs in individuals who have narrow anterior
chamber angles. In these cases, aqueous fluid behind the iris cannot pass through
the pupil thus pushing the iris forward, preventing aqueous drainage through the
angle. It is as though a sheet of paper floating near a drain suddenly drops over
the opening and blocks the flow out of the sink. In cases of acute angle closure
glaucoma, one may experience blurred vision, halos around lights, deep pain
behind the eye, nausea, and vomiting. Nethradhama advises its patients to have
periodic eye examinations for early detection of glaucoma
RISK FACTORS FOR GLAUCOMA
High pressure alone does not mean that you have glaucoma. In Nethradhama we
put together many kinds of information to determine your risk for developing this
disease. The most important risk factors include:
• Age (Over 40 years
• Near-sightedness (Myopia)
• A family history of glaucoma
• Past injuries to the eyes
• A history of severe anemia or shock
• Diabetes/ Hypertension
In Innocent Hearts Eye Centre, we will weigh all of these factors before deciding whether you need treatment for glaucoma, or whether you should be monitored closely as a glaucoma suspect. Being glaucoma suspect means your risk of developing glaucoma is higher than normal, and you need to have regular examination to detect the early signs of damage to the optic nerve.
MYTHS AND TRUTHS ABOUT GLAUCOMA
Glaucoma is a highly misunderstood disease. Frequently, patients do not even realize that they are affected by the disease and rarely have an inkling about its severity. Here are the most common myths and truths about glaucoma :
Myth #1: Glaucoma is a disease that only happens to older people.
Everyone is at risk for glaucoma from babies to elderly people. But, older people are at a higher risk for glaucoma. However babies (approximately 1 out of every 10,000 babies are born with glaucoma) and young adults can also get glaucoma.
Myth #2: Glaucoma is curable.
Glaucoma is not curable, however, it is manageable. But first it must be diagnosed. Often glaucoma can be managed with medication and/or surgery. This means that further loss of vision may be halted. However, glaucoma is a chronic disease that must be treated for lifetime.
Myth #3: There are symptoms that will warn you of glaucoma.
With open angle glaucoma, the most common form, there are virtually no symptoms. There is usually no pain involved with the rise in eye pressure. Loss of vision begins with peripheral or side vision. This type of vision loss can be easily compensated for (by turning the head to the side) and may not be noticed until significant vision is lost. The best way to protect your sight from glaucoma is to be tested so that if you have glaucoma, treatment can begin immediately.
Myth #4: Glaucoma does not cause blindness.
Glaucoma can infact cause blindness if it is left untreated. And unfortunately, many patients do not realise that are afflicted with glaucoma until they have lost nearly all vision.
The technique of measurement of pressure within the eye (Intra ocular pressure -(IOP/IOT) is called tonometry. This is very important since IOP is one of the indicators of Glaucoma. Tonometry is recommended in everyone over the age of 40, family history of glaucoma, Myopia, Diabetes and any history of previous ocular injuries. This technique can be performed with either applanation or non- contact tonometer.
Visual Field Examination
HUMPHREY OPTOPOL VISUAL FIELD ANALYSER
The perimetry test is also called a visual field test. During this test, you will be asked to look straight ahead and then indicate when a stationary light appears in the field of vision. This helps draw a “map” of your field of vision.
This is a non-invasive computerised test which takes about 10-20 minutes to perform and gives information regarding optic nerve damage due to glaucoma.
Glaucoma and Optic Nerve Head Digital Photography
Normal disk photo
Early stage glaucoma
Moderate stage glaucoma
Advanced stage glaucoma